Neuromuscular Design

Musculoskeletal design studies range from quantitative anatomical studies of human and animal muscle structure to microscopic analysis of muscle contraction.


  • Loren, G.J., S.D. Shoemaker, T.J. Burkholder, M.D. Jacobson, J. Fridén and R.L. Lieber (1996). Human wrist motors: biomechanical design and application to tendon transfers. J. Biomech. 29(3):331-42.
  • Lieber, R.L. and R.J. Baskin (1983). Intersarcomere dynamics of single skeletal muscle fibers during fixed-end tetani. J. Gen. Physiol. 82:347-364.
  • Lieber, R.L. and J.L. Boakes (1988). Sarcomere length and Joint kinematics during torque production in the frog hindlimb. Am. J. Physiol. 254:C759-C768.
  • Lieber, R.L., C.G. Brown and C.L. Trestik (1992). Model of muscle-tendon interaction during frog semitendinosus fixed-end contractions. J. Biomech. 25:421-428.
  • Lieber, R.L., B.M. Fazeli, R.A. Abrams and M.J. Botte (1992). Architecture of selected muscles of the arm and forearm: anatomy and implications for tendon transfer. J. Hand Surg. 17:787-798.
  • Bodine SC, R.R. Roy, E. Eldred, and V.R. Edgerton (1987). Maximal force as a function of anatomical features of motor units in the cat tibialis anterior. J. Neurophys., 57(6):1730-45.

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