Medical imaging of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine constructs
Berry DB , Englund EK , Chen S , Frank LR , Ward SR . Biomater Sci, 2021 9(2):301-314.
Advancement of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies to replicate tissue structure and function has led to the need for noninvasive assessment of key outcome measures of a construct's state, biocompatibility, and function. Histology based approaches are traditionally used in pre-clinical animal experiments, but are not always feasible or practical if a TERM construct is going to be tested for human use. In order to transition these therapies from benchtop to bedside, rigorously validated imaging techniques must be utilized that are sensitive to key outcome measures that fulfill the FDA standards for TERM construct evaluation. This review discusses key outcome measures for TERM constructs and various clinical- and research-based imaging techniques that can be used to assess them. Potential applications and limitations of these techniques are discussed, as well as resources for the processing, analysis, and interpretation of biomedical images.